The Chilling Effect: Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Graphic Health Warnings, the Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products, and the Trans-Pacific Partnership

Keywords: Intellectual Property, Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Tobacco Control, Graphic Health Warnings, Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products, the Trans-Pacific Partnership

Abstract

Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) poses significant challenges in respect of tobacco control, public health, human rights, and sustainable development. Two landmark ISDS rulings provide procedural and substantive guidance on the interaction between ISDS and tobacco control. The ISDS action by Philip Morris against Uruguay in respect to graphic health warnings raised important procedural and substantive issues. The ISDS matter between Philip Morris and Australia over the plain packaging of tobacco products highlighted matters in respect of abuse of process. In the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), there was a special exclusion for tobacco control measures in respect of ISDS. There was also a larger discussion about the role of general public health exceptions. In the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), there was a debate about the application of ISDS to intellectual property rights. In the European Union, there has been discussion of the creation of an international investment court. In the renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), there has even been calls to abolish ISDS clauses altogether from both Republicans and Democrats. This article concludes there is a need to protect tobacco control measures implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control 2013 from further investor and trade challenges.

Author Biography

Matthew Rimmer, Faculty of Law, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland.

r Matthew Rimmer is a Professor in Intellectual Property and Innovation Law at the Faculty of Law, at the Queensland University of Technology (QUT). He is a leader of the QUT Intellectual Property and Innovation Law research program, and a member of the QUT Digital Media Research Centre (QUT DMRC) the QUT Australian Centre for Health Law Research (QUT ACHLR), and the QUT International Law and Global Governance Research Program. Rimmer has published widely on copyright law and information technology, patent law and biotechnology, access to medicines, plain packaging of tobacco products, intellectual property and climate change, and Indigenous Intellectual Property. He is currently working on research on intellectual property, the creative industries, and 3D printing; intellectual property and public health; and intellectual property and trade, looking at the Trans-Pacific Partnership, the Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, and the Trade in Services Agreement. His work is archived at QUT ePrints SSRN Abstracts Bepress Selected Works.

Dr Matthew Rimmer holds a BA (Hons) and a University Medal in literature (1995), and a LLB (Hons) (1997) from the Australian National University. He received a PhD in law from the University of New South Wales for his dissertation on The Pirate Bazaar: The Social Life of Copyright Law (1998-2001). Dr Matthew Rimmer was a lecturer, senior lecturer, and an associate professor at the ANU College of Law, and a research fellow and an associate director of the Australian Centre for Intellectual Property in Agriculture (ACIPA) (2001 to 2015). He was an Australian Research Council Future Fellow, working on Intellectual Property and Climate Change from 2011 to 2015. He was a member of the ANU Climate Change Institute.

Rimmer is the author of Digital Copyright and the Consumer Revolution: Hands off my iPod (Edward Elgar, 2007). With a focus on recent US copyright law, the book charts the consumer rebellion against the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act 1998 (US) and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act 1998 (US). Rimmer explores the significance of key judicial rulings and considers legal controversies over new technologies, such as the iPod, TiVo, Sony Playstation II, Google Book Search, and peer-to-peer networks. The book also highlights cultural developments, such as the emergence of digital sampling and mash-ups, the construction of the BBC Creative Archive, and the evolution of the Creative Commons. Rimmer has also participated in a number of policy debates over Film Directors’ copyright, the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement 2004, the Copyright Amendment Act 2006 (Cth), the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement 2011, and the Trans-Pacific Partnership. He has been an advocate for Fair IT Pricing in Australia.

Rimmer is the author of Intellectual Property and Biotechnology: Biological Inventions (Edward Elgar, 2008). This book documents and evaluates the dramatic expansion of intellectual property law to accommodate various forms of biotechnology from micro-organisms, plants, and animals to human genes and stem cells. It makes a unique theoretical contribution to the controversial public debate over the commercialisation of biological inventions. Rimmer also edited the thematic issue of Law in Context, entitled Patent Law and Biological Inventions (Federation Press, 2006).  Rimmer was also a chief investigator in an Australian Research Council Discovery Project, “Gene Patents In Australia: Options For Reform” (2003-2005), an Australian Research Council Linkage Grant, “The Protection of Botanical Inventions (2003), and an Australian Research Council Discovery Project, “Promoting Plant Innovation in Australia” (2009-2011). Rimmer has participated in inquiries into plant breeders’ rights, gene patents, and access to genetic resources.

Rimmer is a co-editor of a collection on access to medicines entitled Incentives for Global Public Health: Patent Law and Access to Essential Medicines (Cambridge University Press, 2010). The work considers the intersection between international law, public law, and intellectual property law, and highlights a number of new policy alternatives – such as medical innovation prizes, the Health Impact Fund, patent pools, open source drug discovery, and the philanthropic work of the (Red) Campaign, the Gates Foundation, and the Clinton Foundation. Rimmer is also a co-editor of Intellectual Property and Emerging Technologies: The New Biology (Edward Elgar, 2012).

Rimmer is a researcher and commentator on the topic of intellectual property, public health, and tobacco control. He has undertaken research on trade mark law and the plain packaging of tobacco products, and given evidence to an Australian parliamentary inquiry on the topic.

Rimmer is the author of a monograph, Intellectual Property and Climate Change: Inventing Clean Technologies (Edward Elgar, September 2011). This book charts the patent landscapes and legal conflicts emerging in a range of fields of innovation – including renewable forms of energy, such as solar power, wind power, and geothermal energy; as well as biofuels, green chemistry, green vehicles, energy efficiency, and smart grids. As well as reviewing key international treaties, this book provides a detailed analysis of current trends in patent policy and administration in key nation states, and offers clear recommendations for law reform. It considers such options as technology transfer, compulsory licensing, public sector licensing, and patent pools; and analyses the development of Climate Innovation Centres, the Eco-Patent Commons, and environmental prizes, such as the L-Prize, the H-Prize, and the X-Prizes. Rimmer is currently working on a manuscript, looking at green branding, trade mark law, and environmental activism.

Rimmer has also a research interest in intellectual property and traditional knowledge. He has written about the misappropriation of Indigenous art, the right of resale, Indigenous performers’ rights, authenticity marks, biopiracy, and population genetics. Rimmer is the editor of the collection, Indigenous Intellectual Property: A Handbook of Contemporary Research (Edward Elgar, 2015).

Rimmer is currently working as a Chief Investigator on an ARC Discovery Project on “Inventing The Future: Intellectual Property and 3D Printing” (2017-2020). This project aims to provide guidance for industry and policy-makers about intellectual property, three-dimensional (3D) printing, and innovation policy. It will consider the evolution of 3D printing, and examine its implications for the creative industries, branding and marketing, manufacturing and robotics, clean technologies, health-care and the digital economy. The project will examine how 3D printing disrupts copyright law, designs law, trade mark law, patent law and confidential information. The project expects to provide practical advice about intellectual property management and commercialisation, and boost Australia’s capacity in advanced manufacturing and materials science.

Rimmer has supervised four students who have completed Higher Degree Research on the topics, Secret Business and Business Secrets: The Hindmarsh Island Affair, Information Law, and the Public Sphere (2007); Intellectual Property and Applied Philosophy (2010); The Pharmacy of the Developing World: Indian Patent Law and Access to Essential Medicines (2012); and Marine Bioprospecting: International Law, Indonesia and Sustainable Development (2014). He has also supervised sixty-seven Honours students, Summer Research Scholars, and Interns, and two graduate research unit Masters students.

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Ibid.

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Ibid.

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Ibid. 26.

Ibid. 26.

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Ibid.

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Ibid.

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Ibid., 2.

Ibid. 3.

Ibid., 3.

Ibid., 3.

Ibid., 3.

Ibid., 3.

Ibid., 3.

Jess Hill, ‘ISDS: The Devil in the Trade Deal’, Background Briefing, Radio National, 14 September 2014, http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/backgroundbriefing/isds-the-devil-in-the-trade-deal/5734490#transcript

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Ibid., 1.

Ibid., 2.

Ibid., 2.

Ibid., 2-3.

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Thomas Faunce, ‘An Affront to the Rule of Law: International Tribunals to Decide on Plain Packaging’, The Conversation, 29 August 2012, http://theconversation.edu.au/an-affront-to-the-rule-of-law-international-tribunals-to-decide-on-plain-packaging-8968

Mark Davison, ‘The Bilateral Investment Treaty Dispute between Australia and Philip Morris Asia: What Rights are Relevant and How Have they Been Affected?’ (2012) 9 (5) Transnational Dispute Management http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2214833

Ibid.

Ibid.

Lawrence Gostin, Global Health Law, Cambridge (MA) and London: Harvard University Press, 2014, 236.

Ibid., 236.

Ibid., 236.

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v. Australia, PCA Case No. 2012-12, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility (17 December 2015). http://www.pcacases.com/web/view/5 Ruling http://www.pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1711

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v. Australia, PCA Case No. 2012-12, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility (17 December 2015). http://www.pcacases.com/web/view/5 Ruling http://www.pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1711, 184.

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v. Australia, PCA Case No. 2012-12, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility (17 December 2015). http://www.pcacases.com/web/view/5 Ruling http://www.pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1711, para. 164, p. 31.

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v. Australia, PCA Case No. 2012-12, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility (17 December 2015). http://www.pcacases.com/web/view/5 Ruling http://www.pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1711, para. 508-9, p. 158.

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v. Australia, PCA Case No. 2012-12, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility (17 December 2015). http://www.pcacases.com/web/view/5 Ruling http://www.pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1711, para. 508-9, p. 158.

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v. Australia, PCA Case No. 2012-12, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility (17 December 2015). http://www.pcacases.com/web/view/5 Ruling http://www.pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1711, para. 554, p. 170.

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v. Australia, PCA Case No. 2012-12, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility (17 December 2015). http://www.pcacases.com/web/view/5 Ruling http://www.pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1711, para. 554, p. 170.

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v. Australia, PCA Case No. 2012-12, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility (17 December 2015). http://www.pcacases.com/web/view/5 Ruling http://www.pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1711, 184.

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v. Australia, PCA Case No. 2012-12, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility (17 December 2015). http://www.pcacases.com/web/view/5 Ruling http://www.pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1711, 184.

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v. Australia, PCA Case No. 2012-12, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility (17 December 2015). http://www.pcacases.com/web/view/5 Ruling http://www.pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1711, 184-185.

Philip Morris Asia Ltd v. Australia, PCA Case No. 2012-12, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility (17 December 2015). http://www.pcacases.com/web/view/5 Ruling http://www.pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1711, 185.

Ibid.

Karen Barlow, ‘Trade Pact Tested, Australia Wins Big Tobacco Fight’, The Huffington Post, 18 December 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com.au/2015/12/17/australia-plain-packaging-big-tobacco_n_8834270.html?utm_hp_ref=australia

Ibid.

Jarrod Hepburn and Luke Eric Peterson, ‘Australia Prevails in Arbitration with Philip Morris Over Tobacco Plain Packaging Dispute’, Investment Arbitration Reporter, 17 December 2015, https://www.iareporter.com/articles/breaking-australia-prevails-in-arbitration-with-philip-morris-over-tobacco-plain-packaging-dispute/

Senator Peter Whish-Wilson, ‘Plain Packaging Victory is Outstanding for Public Health but ISDS still Hangs like a Damocles Sword over Australian Democracy’, Press Release, 18 December 2015, http://peter-whish-wilson.greensmps.org.au/content/media-releases/plain-packaging-victory-outstanding-public-health-isds-still-hangs-damocles-s

Ibid.

Belinda Merhab, ‘Government Won’t Reveal Tobacco Case Costs’, Australian Associated Press, 19 October 2016, http://www.news.com.au/national/breaking-news/govt-wont-reveal-tobacco-case-costs/news-story/7a81f7003241d0290685b5ce1d83f6db

Kyla Tienhaara, ‘The Dismissal of a Case against Plain Cigarette Packaging is Good News for Taxpayers’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 20 December 2015, http://www.smh.com.au/comment/the-dismissal-of-a-case-against-plain-cigarette-packaging-is-good-news-for-taxpayers-20151218-glrb53.html

Stephen Easton, ‘Sovereign Risk: First ISDS Dispute Won, But It Won’t Be The Last’, The Mandarin, 23 December 2015, http://www.themandarin.com.au/58636-australia-defends-regulatory-sovereignty-challenges-come/?pgnc=1

Glyn Moody, ‘Just Because Australia Won Its Plain Packaging Case Against Philip Morris Doesn't Mean Corporate Sovereignty Isn't A Threat’, TechDirt, 23 December 2015, https://www.techdirt.com/articles/20151221/10582033149/just-because-australia-won-plain-packaging-case-against-philip-morris-doesnt-mean-corporate-sovereignty-isnt-threat.shtml

Lori Wallach, ‘Public Interest Takes a Hit Even When Phillip Morris’ Investor-State Attack on Australia is Dismissed’, The Huffington Post, 1 May 2016, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/lori-wallach/public-interest-takes-a-h_b_8918010.html

Tania Voon and Andrew Mitchell, ‘Philip Morris vs. Tobacco Control: Two Wins for Public Health and Uncertainty Remains’, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, 12 September 2016, http://ccsi.columbia.edu/files/2013/10/No-182-Voon-and-Mitchell-FINAL.pdf

Jarrod Hepburn, and Luke Nottage, ‘Case Note: Philip Morris Asia v Australia (2016). Journal of World Investment and Trade, https://ssrn.com/abstract=2842065

Productivity Commission, Intellectual Property Arrangements – Draft Report, Melbourne: Productivity Commission, 2016, http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/current/intellectual-property/draft/intellectual-property-draft.pdf and Productivity Commission, Intellectual Property Arrangements, Melbourne: Productivity Commission, Report No. 78, 2016, http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/intellectual-property/report

Productivity Commission, Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements, Melbourne: Productivity Commission, November 2010, http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/trade-agreements/report/trade-agreements-report.pdf

Ibid, xxxii.

The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, The Trans-Pacific Partnership, http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/official-documents/Pages/official-documents.aspx For commentary, see Jane Kelsey (ed.), No Ordinary Deal: Unmasking the Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement, Wellington: Bridget Williams Books Inc., 2010; Tania Voon (ed.), Trade Liberalisation and International Co-operation: A Legal Analysis of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, Cheltenham (UK) and Northampton (Mass.): Edward Elgar, 2013; C.L. Lim, Deborah Elms and Patrick Low (ed.), The Trans-Pacific Partnership: A Quest for a Twenty-First Century Trade Agreement, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012; Jane Kelsey, Hidden Agendas: What We Need to Know about the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA), Wellington: Bridget Williams Books Limited, 2013; and Scott Sinclair and Stuart Trew (ed.), The Trans-Pacific Partnership and Canada: A Citizen’s Guide, Toronto: James Lorimer & Company Ltd., 2016.

Chapter 9 of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/official-documents/Documents/9-investment.pdf

Matthew Rimmer, 'Plain Packaging for the Pacific Rim: the Trans-Pacific Partnership and Tobacco Control', in Tania Voon (ed.), Trade Liberalisation and International Co-operation: A Legal Analysis of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, Cheltenham (UK) and Northampton (Mass.): Edward Elgar, 2013, 75-105.

Philip Morris, ‘Submission of Philip Morris International in Response to the Request for Comments Concerning the Proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade Agreement’, 22 January 2010, http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=USTR-2009-0041-0016.1

Cato Institute, ‘Should Free Traders Support the Trans-Pacific Partnership? An Assessment of America’s Largest preferential Trade Agreement’, 12 September 2016, 37, https://www.cato.org/publications/working-paper/should-free-traders-support-trans-pacific-partnership-assessment-americas Source Watch, ‘Cato Institute’, http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Cato_Institute Source Watch notes that the Cate Institute has appeared on several Philip Morris lists of ‘national allies.’

The Hon. Julia Gillard, ‘Tobacco’s Ugly Truth Must Be Uncovered’, The Guardian, 23 December 2013; and https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/23/tobaccos-ugly-truth-must-be-uncovered Helen Davidson, ‘Big Tobacco Could Unduly Influence Trade Negotiations, Julia Gillard says’, The Guardian, 23 December 2013, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/23/big-tobacco-could-unduly-influence-trade-negotiations-julia-gillard-says

Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, ‘8 Health Groups File to Suit to Force FDA to Require Graphic Cigarette Warnings as Mandated by Law’, 4 October 2016, http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/press_releases/post/2016_10_04_fda

Laurent Huber, ‘Tobacco from all Nations Excluded in Trade Pact’, Kentucky.com, 30 April 2012, http://www.kentucky.com/2012/04/30/2169551/tobacco-from-all-nations-excluded.html

Susan Liss, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids Urges Trans Partnership Agreement Negotiators to Exempt Tobacco Products from the Proposed Free Trade Agreement, Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/content/what_we_do/federal_issues/trade/TPP.pdf

Ibid.

The Editorial Board, ‘The Hazard of Free-Trade Tobacco’, The New York Times, 31 August 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/01/opinion/sunday/the-hazard-of-free-trade-tobacco.html; Ellen Shaffer, ‘Stop TPP Protections for Big Tobacco’, The Huffington Post, 9 September 2013, <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ellen-r-shaffer/stop-tpp-protections-for-big-tobacco_b_3886771.html and Eric Mar, ‘U.S. Must Take Tobacco Out of Global Trade Talks’, San Francisco Chronicle, 24 September 2013, http://www.sfgate.com/opinion/openforum/article/U-S-must-take-tobacco-out-of-global-trade-talks-4819528.php

Mike Bloomberg, ‘Why is Obama Caving on Tobacco?’, The New York Times, 22 August 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/23/opinion/why-is-obama-caving-on-tobacco.html

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

United States Trade Representative, ‘The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Chapter 29 – General Exceptions – Chapter Summary’, https://medium.com/the-trans-pacific-partnership/exceptions-1299fbf34b76#.jcdrabnhe

Article 29.5 of the Trans-Pacific Partnership 2015 http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/official-documents/Pages/official-documents.aspx

Article 29.5 of the Trans-Pacific Partnership 2015 http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/official-documents/Pages/official-documents.aspx

Article 29.5 of the Trans-Pacific Partnership 2015 http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/official-documents/Pages/official-documents.aspx

Katherine Shats, ‘Is the Trans-Pacific Partnership a win for Tobacco Control? A First Look at the Tobacco Carve-Out’, O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law, 11 May 2015, http://www.oneillinstituteblog.org/is-the-trans-pacific-partnership-a-win-for-tobacco-control-a-first-look-at-the-tobacco-carve-out/#.VjzgOFH21WA.twitter

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Robert Ireland, ‘The Trans-Pacific Partnership Tobacco Carve-Out Precedent’, (2016) 11 (4) Global Trade and Customs Journal 165–69.

Ted Alcorn, ‘TPP: Trade-Offs for Health Behind Closed Doors’ (2016) 387 (10022) The Lancet 929-930 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673616006322

Scott Sinclair, ‘The TPP and Health Care’, in Scott Sinclair and Stuart Trew (ed.), The Trans-Pacific Partnership and Canada: A Citizen’s Guide, Toronto: James Lorimer & Company Ltd., 2016, 46-65 at 55.

Ibid., 55.

See Tania Voon, Andrew Mitchell, and Jonathan Liberman (ed.), Regulating Tobacco, Alcohol and Unhealthy Foods: The Legal Issues, London and New York: Routledge, 2014; Alberto Alemanno, and Enrico Bonadio (ed.), The New Intellectual Property of Health: Beyond Plain Packaging, Cheltenham (UK) and Northampton (MA): Edward Elgar, 2016; and Jay Sanderson, ‘Health Conscious and Confused: Why “Healthy” Trade Marks Matter’ (2016) 39(2) University of New South Wales Law Journal 658-683.

‘Draft Notification by Australia in respect of Article 29.5 of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement’, https://t.co/F6kyyuyqZP

Ibid.

Scott Sinclair, ‘The TPP and Health Care’, in Scott Sinclair and Stuart Trew (ed.), The Trans-Pacific Partnership and Canada: A Citizen’s Guide, Toronto: James Lorimer & Company Ltd., 2016, 46-65 at 55.

Agreement to Amend the Singapore-Australia Free Trade Agreement 2016 http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/safta/Documents/agreement-to-amend-the-singapore-australia-free-trade-agreement.pdf

Marc Firestone, ‘Philip Morris – We are Defending Our Business, Not Attacking Human Rights’, The Guardian, 17 November 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/nov/19/philip-morris-we-are-defending-our-business-not-attacking-human-rights

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Katherine Murphy, ‘TPP trade deal: Plain Packaging challenge triggered 'hysteria', lawyer tells MPs’, The Guardian, 10 October 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2016/oct/10/philip-morris-lawyer-plain-packaging-legal-challenge-trans-pacific-partnership-trade?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

Ibid.

Ibid.

Article 9.1 of the Trans-Pacific Partnership http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/official-documents/Documents/9-investment.pdf

Article 9.8.5 of the Trans-Pacific Partnership http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/official-documents/Documents/9-investment.pdf

Article 9.8.5 of the Trans-Pacific Partnership http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/official-documents/Documents/9-investment.pdf

Article 9.10.5 of the Trans-Pacific Partnership http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/official-documents/Documents/9-investment.pdf

Corinne Reichert, ‘TPP At Odds with Australian Copyright Law: Law Council’, ZDNet, 1 November 2016, http://www.zdnet.com/article/tpp-at-odds-with-australian-copyright-law-law-council/

Ibid.

Chief Justice Robert French, ‘Investor-State Dispute Settlement – A Cut Above the Courts?’, Supreme and Federal Courts Judges’ Conference, 9 July 2014, http://www.hcourt.gov.au/assets/publications/speeches/current-justices/frenchcj/frenchcj09jul14.pdf

Chapter 9 of the Trans-Pacific Partnership http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/official-documents/Documents/9-investment.pdf

The Trans-Pacific Partnership 2015 http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/official-documents/Pages/official-documents.aspx

Chapter 29 of the Trans-Pacific Partnership http://dfat.gov.au/trade/agreements/tpp/official-documents/Documents/29-exceptions-and-general-provisions.pdf

Peter Yu, ‘TPP Trade Pact Still Needs Improvements to Protect Governments from Foreign Suits’, The Conversation, 15 February 2016, https://theconversation.com/tpp-trade-pact-still-needs-improvements-to-protect-governments-from-foreign-suits-54078

Tania Voon, and Andrew Mitchell, ‘Philip Morris vs. Tobacco Control: Two Wins for Public Health but Uncertainty Remains’ Columbia FDI Perspectives 12 September 2016 http://ccsi.columbia.edu/files/2013/10/No-182-Voon-and-Mitchell-FINAL.pdf

Jess Hill, ‘TPP’s Clauses that let Australia be Sued are Weapons of Legal Destruction, Says Lawyer’, The Guardian, 10 November 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/nov/10/tpps-clauses-that-let-australia-be-sued-are-weapons-of-legal-destruction-says-lawyer

Nicky Woolf, Justin McCurry and Benjamin Haas, ‘Trump to Withdraw from Trans-Pacific Partnership on first day in Office’, The Guardian, 21 November 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/nov/21/donald-trump-100-days-plans-video-trans-pacific-partnership-withdraw

Ibid.

Ibid.

The White House, ‘Presidential Memorandum Regarding Withdrawal of the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Agreement’, Press Release, 23 January 2017, https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/01/23/presidential-memorandum-regarding-withdrawal-united-states-trans-pacific

‘Japan’s Abe: TPP is “Meaningless” Without the U.S.’, Wall Street Journal, 22 November 2016, http://www.wsj.com/video/japan-abe-tpp-is-meaningless-without-the-us/973FA32A-8C2B-47C2-B60B-721D6A7080A0.html

Ibid.

Erin Schumaker, ‘Remember when Mike Pence said Smoking Doesn’t Kill? Pence also Took Money from Tobacco Companies and fought Tax Hikes on Cigarettes’, The Huffington Post, 29 October 2016, http://www.huffingtonpost.com.au/entry/mike-pence-said-smoking-doesnt-kill_us_58121434e4b064e1b4b0bf93

Matthew Yglesias, ‘Trump is Going to be Mad When He Hears What His Appointees Think About the TPP: His Top Economic and Foreign Policy Advisers Love It (As Do His Other Advisers)’, Vox, 16 December 2016, http://www.vox.com/2016/12/16/13938730/trump-cabinet-tpp

Alfred de Zayas, ‘How Can Philip Morris Sue Uruguay Over Its Tobacco Laws’, The Guardian, 16 November 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/nov/16/philip-morris-uruguay-tobacco-isds-human-rights?CMP=share_btn_tw

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Alfred de Zayas, ‘UN Rights Expert Urges States Not to Sign the “Flawed” CETA Treaty and Put It To Referendum’, United Nations Human Rights, 28 October 2016 http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=20787&LangID=E

Ibid.

Alfred de Zayas, Report of the Independent Expert on the Promotion of a Democratic and Equitable International Order on the Adverse Impacts of Free Trade and Investment Agreements on a Democratic and Equitable Order, Human Rights Council, 14 May 2015, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session30/Documents/A_HRC_30_44_ENG.docx

Alfred de Zayas, ‘Trade agreements should mainstream human rights – UN expert urges’, United Nations News Centre, 13 September 2016, http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=54903#.V9lUAfl97IU

Ibid.

Ibid.

United Nations, Sustainable Development Goals, http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/

United Nations, Sustainable Development Goals, http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/

Stephan Schill, ‘Reforming Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Conceptual Framework and Options for the Way Forward’, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, and the World Economic Forum, July 2015, http://e15initiative.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/E15-Investment-Schill-FINAL.pdf

Margaret Chan, ‘Every Tobacco Death is an Avoidable Tragedy. The Epidemic Must Stop Here’, The Guardian, 6 November 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/nov/06/tobacco-death-avoidable-tragedy-epidemic-india-conference-margaret-chan-world-health-organisation?CMP=share_btn_tw

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Margaret Chan, ‘Health has an Obligatory Place on Any Post-2015 Agenda’, 67th World Health Assembly, World Health Organization, 19 May 2014, http://www.who.int/dg/speeches/2014/wha-19052014/en/

Published
2018-06-11
How to Cite
Rimmer, M. (2018). The Chilling Effect: Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Graphic Health Warnings, the Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products, and the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Victoria University Law and Justice Journal, 7(1), 76-93. https://doi.org/10.15209/vulj.v7i1.1044
Section
Articles